借科技革命之力,全球化以其迅猛之势席卷全球 。网络将地球浓缩成一个村落 。全球化与本土化形影相随,甚至于出现了这样的口号,叫做“全球化思考,本土化行动”(“Think globally, act locally”) 。全球化给人类的革命涉及方方面面,包括经济 、政治 、文化等等 。全球化对语言变迁也产生了深远影响,一方面,英语似乎成了通用语,但另一方面又出现了以英语为载体的网页逐渐让位于新崛起的其他语言这样的现象 。全球化给翻译研究也带来了新的挑战与机遇 。全球化带来了几乎是无所不包的丰富资源,为大规模 、高速度进行翻译提供了便利。但同时对翻译和译者提出了新的要求,比如说:如何使网络上浩瀚的资源为我所用?怎样使用各种现代工具?如何对待译者的语言素养?传统的翻译技巧如何与时俱进?翻译理论与翻译实践如何有机结合起来?译者应如何应对全球化?这一系列的问题,需要得到答案。这是基于这一背景,本文进行了有益的探索,讨论了全球化对翻译带来的影响。文章对中国翻译理论 、技巧和译者素养做了统计分析,思考译者在全球化背景下的地位:翻译任务的完成依赖译者的素养,翻译离不开技巧,尤其是新形势下需要有人指导译者的翻译技巧,翻译更离不开理论指导,离开了理论,译者就会失去方向 。从文献综述上来看,本文受全球化影响,有别于一般论文 。由于全球化给翻译带来的即时性,使得本文难以像传统文献综述一样,将国内外研究简单区分 。全球化背景下的翻译研究,既包括国内译者在中国和国外发表的文章,又有国外作者在中国讨论翻译问题,还有一些国外译者在国际性刊物上讨论中国有关翻译问题,更有不少中国译者与西方译者联手发表文章,因此本研究分类不再将“国内、外研究”分述,而是打破国内外研究分离的方式,根据各类文献的研究特点,国内外综合归类,统计分析 。译者语言素养是一个永恒而常新的话题 。离开了语言素养,翻译就没有了生存的基础 。文章分析了古今中外对译者语言素养的论述。很长一段时期以来,中外译界都很重视语言素养的培养,但是在全球化到来之际,出现了两种轻视语言素养的现象。随着译者语言素养的下降,译者的翻译水平出现了每况愈下的趋势,而且在中国的翻译界,无论是学校的教学大纲还是各类翻译考试大纲中,都鲜有对双语素养的要求,尤其是对母语素养的要求,似乎是译者与生俱来就有驾驭母语的能力。本文认为,对于译者语言素养,再怎么强调也不为过 。语言素养不是译者生而知之的,尤其是被忽视的母语素养以及双语素养不经过努力培养是不可轻易获得的。创新并不意味牺牲技巧。传统也并非因为我们进入新时代而消逝 。翻译也是一种需要长期锻炼的技能 。对于技巧的讨论尽管是由来已久,但新形势有新要求,尤其是掌握新技术所需要的技巧是现代译者不可或缺的内容 。翻译技巧对译者,尤其是初学者的作用自不待言,技能意识必然“内化”为译者的行为准则,指导或检验译作及整个翻译过程。尤其是在新时期,技能意识逐渐淡化,新的技术又不断出现,因此译者的技能意识必然需要提到一个新的高度 。传统技巧与现代技巧构成当代译者不可或缺的要素 。技巧能帮助解决全球化语境下出现的大量翻译问题 。技巧并非自动获得,而是需要训练。本文从文体 、逻辑和工具观对译者的技能进行了分析。文章的风格与内容是血肉一体,文体翻译中的技巧并非是简单的外加美化成分。优美的文体给读者带来无穷的享受。而对于逻辑,由于中西表达之间的差异,有许多需要掌握的技巧。本研究尤其对现代工具的运用提出了具有指导性的方法,如于网络翻译、在线词典、翻译BBS等 。指导译者利用网络这个浩瀚的资源服务来解决目前新形势下大规模 、高速度翻译。文章还讨论了译者的翻译基本能力,包括双语词汇运用能力和句法结构调整能力等 。本研究还讨论了译者在语言对比能力 、表达能力和创新能力上有一定作为。本文讨论了译者文化意识的培养。文化知识与文化差异很长一段时间以来都是翻译理论与译者培养的焦点 。全球化对文化的影响尤甚,文化的全球传播带来的是文化的杂合,而且随着各国交往的深入,这种趋势更加明显 。翻译理论对翻译实践的指导作用,似乎长期以来是一种纷争状态 。文章对中国传统译论和现代西方翻译理论在中国的影响进行了统计分析,发现传统译论强调其功用性,重实践而轻理论;全球化带来大量西方翻译理论,对中国翻译产生了深远影响,但又出现了另一个极端,过于强调理论的认识实践功能,而忽视了其应有的指导功能。似乎一谈到理论,就必须深奥晦涩 。理论与实践在别的领域可以和平共处,而在于翻译研究似乎水火不容。翻译研究也应该是一个和谐的系统。其实从理论的指导功能上来看,要求其能指导实践,并非过分,在全球化背景下已经有译者提出了翻译范式的转换问题,希望翻译理论研究能进一步贴近翻译实践。本文就单独列出一章,从格式塔美学来评论《水浒传》两个英语译本。以资借鉴 。新的时代召唤更多研究者投身全球化 、本土化与翻译研究,技术革命需要译者有良好的双语素养,语言理论 、翻译理论和翻译技巧,包括传统技巧与包括计算机工具与网络资源的新技巧 。译者还要与时俱进,一专多能 。
【Abstract】 Thanks to revolution in science and technology, globalization has penetrated into every corner of the world. The globe has“shrunk”, as it were, into a village with the advent of the Internet. Globalization goes hand in hand with localization, which is reflected in the slogan“Think globally, act locally”.This revolution of globalization finds its way into every aspect of life: economy, politics, culture, etc. Globalization has exerted great impact on language in communication, too. On the one hand, English seems to have become a lingua franca, while on the other hand, web pages in English are giving way to those in other languages that have just appeared on the horizon.Globalization has brought both challenges and opportunities to translation studies. It has greatly facilitated translation with its high mobility and velocity, providing all pervasive resources. Globalization has also put forward new requirements for translation studies and translators. Moreover, we are faced with such questions as: How shall we get access to the vast resources of the internet? How can we make the best use of modern technologies in translation? What position shall we take with regard to the language accomplishment required of translators? How can traditional translation techniques meet new demands in the context of globalization? How can translation theory be integrated with translation practice? How shall translators cope with globalization?All these questions are open-ended. Based on these premises, this dissertation explores the impact of globalization on translation. It has conducted a statistical analysis of articles on translation theories, techniques and translator’s accomplishments published in China and offers the researcher’s reflections upon the status of translators in the context of globalization. The completion of translation tasks relies heavily on the translator’s language accomplishment, and there would be no translation without the translators’techniques involved. In the situation of globaliz ation, new techniques are increasing with new technologies and it is precisely those techniques that translators need to equip themselves with under the guidance of professionals. Translators also need theory, as translation can never be divorced from theory; without theory, translation would lose its bearings.The literature review of this dissertation has departed from traditional classification owing to the impact of globalization. The instantaneity of globalization has brought the intermixture of publications at home and abroad, in which Chinese translators publish their articles in the international arena as well as in China, while foreign authors can also discuss translation issues in China. In addition, there are other cases where foreign translators publish articles on Chinese-related translation, either independently or jointly with their Chinese colleagues. Therefore, this dissertation does not follow the traditional classification of“state of the art research at home and abroad”. Rather, it divides into several sections according to the features of publications, intermingling publications internationally and in China.Language accomplishment is an everlasting and a new topic, without which translation would lose its grounds. This dissertation enunciat es translator’s language accomplishment. Translator’s accomplishment was emphasized for quite a long history at home and abroad. However, with the advent of globalization, there is a tendency of neglecting language accomplishment and consequently translati on product is deteriorating due to the deterioration of translator’s language accomplishment. In China, in particular, we can scarcely find any requirements for bilingual accomplishment or mother tongue competence in the syllabuses for university degrees of translation or proficiency tests for translation. It seems that translators are born with excellent mother tongue proficiency. When in truth, we cannot emphasize too much the importance of the translator’s language accomplishment. Nobody is born with language accomplishment. We can never obtain mother
tongue or bilingual accomplishments without arduous effort.Innovations and new technologies do not mean a sacrifice of techniques.Tradition does not die out because we try to express something contemporary or relevant to a newer generation. That drive to innovate helps the tradition to live. Translation in some sense is a technique of long training. It has always been a practice to make the requirement for translators’techniques both in the past and at presen t. On the one hand, techniques will not be discarded because they are old. On the other hand, translators are faced with new problems in their fulfillment of translation tasks in the new situation of globalization. It stands to reason that techniques are important to translators, especially to beginners. The consciousness of techniques must be internalized as criteria and principles for translators, guiding or verifying translation processes and translation products. In the age of globalization, the consciousness of techniques is weakening, while new technologies emerge as the revolution of globalization. Hence, the consciousness of techniques will have to be placed on a new horizon. Traditional as well as new techniques constitute the fundamental skills for the translators of the new generation. Techniques help solve problems in translation, which are abundant in the context of globalization as there is a far larger quantity of translation accompanying the vast communication in the global village.Techniques cannot be acquired automatically. They have to come through training. This dissertation discusses the techniques of translation in such aspects as styles in translation, logic in translation and tools for translation. As the style of an article is unified with its content, it is no longer thought of as a simple additional ingredient. A proper style brings endless enjoyment to the readers. As to logic, differences between Chinese and Western languages leave much room for the discussion of techniques. This dissertation pays special attention to the use of modern technologies, such as internet translation, online dictionaries, translation BBS, etc, which guides the translators in utilizing the voluminous resources of the Internet to solve problems of massive and high speed translation in the new era.The dissertation also discusses the basic abilities of translators, including lexical application and syntactic structure. It also deals with the contrastive ability, verbal ability and creative ability of translators.The present study also discusses the cultural awareness of translators. Cultural knowledge and cultural difference have long been a major focus of translator training and translation theory. Globalization has had much greater consequences on culture than ever before. The dissemination of cultural products brings about cultural vi hybridity, which has become a tendency as global exchanges become more frequent.The guiding function of translation theory to translation practice has long been a dispute. This dissertation makes a statistical analysis of Chinese translation theories and the influence of western theories in China. Traditional Chinese theories focused on utilitarianism, emphasizing practice but trivializing theory. The voluminous western theories introduced into China in the wake of globalization have greatly influenced Chinese translation studies. But another extreme is pinpointing the cognitive function but neglecting the guiding function of theory, as if theory should be abstruse.Theory and practice can co-exist in harmony in other areas. However, in translation studies they seem at odds. As a matter of fact, translation studies should also constitute a harmonious system. From the perspective of the guiding function of theories, it is by no means undue for translation theories to guide translation practice. In the context of globalization, such issues as shifting of paradigms in translation studies have been proposed in order that translation theory can go hand in hand with translation practice. It is on such a premise that this dissertation gives one chapter to the analysis of“Shui Hu Zhuan”in the light
of gestalt-aesthetics.This new era calls for more researchers who will devote their study to globalization, localization and translation. The revolution in technology requires the translators to have a good command of the source and the target languages, linguistic theories, translation theories, the use of traditional techniques and computer-based tools and Internet resources. The translators will have to keep up with the times and become inter-disciplinary.